Teaching documentary: Between academia and the media industry
Cet article s’intéresse à l’articulation entre plusieurs approches contemporaines de l’enseignement du documentaire et les conditions de la production et de la diffusion de ce type d’œuvres dans différents contextes nationaux. L’analyse de trois formations en Espagne, aux États-Unis et à Cuba soulève la question de la tension générée par la double filiation du documentaire avec le cinéma et les médias et met en évidence des formes singulières d’interdépendance entre le monde académique et l’industrie. Nous examinons des approches pédagogiques qui, associant théorie et pratique, interrogent et traversent les frontières entre disciplines, entre champs culturels et médiatiques et entre techniques de production et de diffusion.
Mots-clés :enseignement du documentaire, industrie audiovisuelle, transmission, représentation, documentaire de création
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1The practice of documentary, and its approach as an object of reflection, led to the creation of many university courses starting from the mid-1990s. These courses are contemporaneous with both a democratization of the production and dissemination of non-fiction, and the affirmation of a new socio-professional identity for documentary filmmakers. This democratization is closely linked to a proliferation of documentary exposure, first in television, subsequently in movie theaters and later on the web. The development of curricula on documentary has also coincided with intense changes in the media industry due to the irruption of digital technology, for which the university was not simply an observer but, more importantly, a force for acceleration.
2What is the position of academia today with respect to industry when teaching documentary? How does the adoption of a theoretical, aesthetic and ideological framework determine the transmission of abstract knowledge and practical know-how? What is the academic response to the tension generated by the double affiliation of documentary with cinema and media? How can documentary teaching be a laboratory for interdisciplinarity, anticipating and contributing to new practices for cultural and creative industries in the digital age? I will address these questions on the context of documentary in higher education by focusing on three programs which reflect different ways of articulating education, film culture and media industry: The “Master in Creative Documentary” at Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) in Barcelona (Spain), conceived as a space for dialogue between academia and the industry, the “Documentary” specialty at the International School of film and Television (EICTV) in Cuba, which merges a heritage of activist documentary with the pragmatic aim of contributing to industry consolidation and audio-visual policy setting in Latin-American countries, and finally the “Open Documentary Lab” (ODL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States, a research-based model which intends to contribute towards shaping the future of documentary.
- 1 Bruzzi, Stella, New Documentary, London and New York, Routledge, 2006.
3At base, all of these programs draw on the concept of “Creative Documentary”, emphasizing the author's personal vision and incorporating subjectivity and artistic qualities in the representation of reality. In addition, they address documentary in the terms described by Stella Bruzzi, as “a perpetual negotiation between reality, on one hand, and image, interpretation and bias, on the other”1, in opposition to the Bazinian view that minimized the distinction between image and reality.
4Drawing on the freedom to represent reality in a multiplicity of ways, the Spanish and Cuban programs lead to mastering the technical aspects of the production of images and sounds, along with curricula that favor critical thinking and a personal style. The MIT program, for its part, goes even further, breaking down the space between media forms, and focusing on the transformation of media and social practices, without losing sight of the central question of how to represent reality in the new documentary forms.
- 2 Balló, Jordi, « Cronología de una transmisión (El Master de Documental de la UPF) in Torreiro, C. ( (...)
5The Master in Creative Documentary offered by the University Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona emphasizes synergy with industry. Jordi Balló, the program director, founded the Master in 1998 with the support of regional institutions, directors, producers and broadcasters, including Catalan public television, national broadcasters, and the French-German broadcaster Arte. These players helped disseminate and co-finance productions developed in the course. In turn, from the beginning, the Master has been a catalyst for change in the audiovisual industry, becoming a central element of the renewed landscape of Spanish documentary. Balló is categorical about the intention behind the program's creation: “For us, this Master really ought to have an impact on a new concept of creative industry, and we knew we were entering a territory without a recent tradition nor stable production activity”.2 The synergy between the Master and industry is also reflected in the creation of new spaces for documentary, such as Televisió de Catalunya’s Taller, which broadcasts works by young artists outside traditional formats and remains an important outlet for the work of students enrolled in the program.
- 3 Castanon, Brice, Renouveau du documentaire en Espagne et nouveau réalisme catalan : le master en Do (...)
6In his thesis on how the UPF program has influenced the renewal of documentary in Spain, Castanon underlines the role of the Master in the transmission of a culture of documentary by raising awareness at the institutional level, encouraging the arrival of a new generation of filmmakers and technicians, and facilitating the status of creative documentary as a common heritage3.
7The success of the UPF Master is evidenced by a large number of works that have achieved significant exposure. Examples include El cielo gira (The Sky Turns, Mercedes Alvarez, 2004), Grand Prix at the Cinema du Réel Festival in Paris and Best Film at Rotterdam Festival, and Craven vs Craven (Isaki Lacuesta, 2002), which won several festival awards for its creative use of archives. More recently, La plaga (The Plague, Neus Ballus, 2013), presented at the Berlinale and broadcast by Arte, confirms the vitality of the Master as a laboratory for cutting-edge audio-visual essay, purposely merging the documentary and fictional narrative traditions.
8The educational approach at UPF interweaves practice and theoretical courses on documentary aesthetics and technique. It includes collaboration between students, authors, independent production companies and broadcasters in two initiatives: the development of a student project followed up by a professional, and the involvement of students in an ongoing project with an experienced director.
9In the student project module, the university re-enacts standardized industry orthodoxy, including the process of seeking funding at festivals, markets and other events. Projects are marked by defined steps, that enable each student to develop his or her concept until production and beyond, with an essential element (as in many programs) being the monitoring by filmmakers. The first stage involves the transition from idea to creative development, including aspects related to narrative, temporal structure, characters, locations scouting and research. The next stage is a reflection on the written presentation of the project, with the development of a file that is essential to solicit the involvement of creative and financial partners. Mirroring industrial practices, the Master includes pitching sessions, which are now ritual in the global documentary industry for presenting projects to producers and decision-makers. The student project concludes with the definition of production and distribution strategies.
- 4 Viveros, Carmen and Catalá, Josep M. « La nueva ecología del documental » in Torreiro, C. (ed.), Re (...)
10A second element in teaching documentary practice at UPF is both more original and controversial, consisting of engaging students in the development, filming and post-production of feature documentaries directed by an established filmmaker. These films are developed and produced at the initiative of the Master, which may act as executive producer or co-producer, in collaboration with industry partners. The positioning of the Master at the heart of the industrial system raises new questions about the relationship between the university and the marketplace. Current ideology assumes that while the university should build links with companies, it is the role of companies to develop links with society. This notion has been questioned, for example by Viveros and Catalá, who noted that under this standard arrangement “... companies thus constitute the only valid mediation between academia and society, which will simultaneously be impregnated with the ideology this mediation instills”4 . Indeed, the UPF model takes the liaison even further, such that the university is no longer a simple partner in the industry, but becomes a production company in its own right.
- 5 Balló, Jordi, ibid. p.107 « ¿Cómo se puede aprender del otro en el momento de rodar una película, c (...)
11The engagement of students in films by a known author raises other questions with respect to the notion of cultural transmission. Balló enumerates the challenges faced by the Master when it was created: “How can we learn from another person during the filming of a movie when doubts outnumber convictions? Is it possible for a young director to get involved in the work of a more experienced director and learn from him? Will there be a desire for affiliation?”5 Indeed, the organizational complexity of this process and the uncertainties associated with film production have, at times, prevented the involvement of all students in their chosen films in the program. Nevertheless, despite these practical hurdles, the impact of this exercise on the visibility of the UPF Master is undeniable. This has been confirmed by films resulting from this collaborative model which have marked turning points in the history of Spanish documentary, beginning with those produced in the first edition of the Master: Monos como Becky (Monkeys like Becky, Joaquin Jorda, 1999), Buenaventura Durruti, anarquista (Buenaventura Durruti, anarchist, Jean-Louis Comolli, 1999) and En construccion (Work in Progress, José Luis Guerin, 2000). Jorda's film reflects the influence of the 1960s Barcelona School (Jorda was one of the founders) on contemporary documentary production. This film is emblematic, not only for bringing a new dynamism and experimental spirit to Spanish documentary, but also for its important role in setting up the orientation of the Master. A direct result of Jorda's implication in the launching of the Master was that a new generation of documentary filmmakers was well placed to absorb principles from the Barcelona School, expanding the creative freedom of this form while breaking down the distinction between documentary and fiction.
- 6 “Acta de Nacimiento de la Escuela Internacional de Cine y Televisión en San Antonio de los Baños, C (...)
12The International School of Film and Television (EICTV) of Cuba addresses the relationship between documentary teaching and industry in a different way. To understand the philosophy and the place of documentary at EICTV, it is essential to refer to the principles stated in the School's “Acta de nacimiento”, a passionate manifesto written by the Argentinian poet and filmmaker Fernando Birri, one of its founders6.
13First of all, the School was established in 1986 based on principles espoused by New Latin American Cinema, a movement that started in the 1960s, emphasizing film's proximity to social issues and eschewing any separation between fiction and documentary. Second, although the EICTV was linked to the film community from its beginning, it has always aimed at confronting the detrimental attitude of film being somehow superior to television, instead considering film as elitist and potentially reactionary. Indeed, EICTV's founding text places video and television as the quintessential democratic audiovisual expression. A third point concerns the explicit rejection of any supposed neutrality of technology. The School takes the position that the very act of transmitting knowledge necessarily implies a point of view of the world.
14The text establishing the EICTV recalls the heritage of critical documentary, whose paradigmatic example is the legendary Noticiero Latinoamericano, while at the same time stressing the need to go further, in order to embrace a “critical narrative expression. ” Thus a double influence affecting documentary teaching is recognized: the influence of Noticiero, which puts the student in touch with society and individuals through immersion in the environment, and the influence from the creative legacy of the New Latin American Cinema, which stresses the freedom of form.
15These principles guiding the EICTV have not remained as nostalgic echoes. Rather, they have been adapted to the new issues and challenges arising from the theory and practice of contemporary documentary, and form the ideological substrate of the documentary department's creation within the regular course. EICTV offers a Diploma after three years of study instead of a formal graduate or undergraduate degree. Like most programs, the curriculum at EICTV focuses on the acquisition of technical skills in parallel with exposing the students to different ways of thinking about documentary practice, with particular attention towards an ethical engagement with society.
16Outside the regular course, the School has a continuous education program offering technical workshops and seminars about documentary. It also assists in organizing courses for local communities, providing them with literacy in audio-visual technology and expression. In this way, communities are empowered in self-representation, and able to bring their own narratives to the screen. Collaboration with the local television station TV Serrana in Cuba's Sierra Maestra is exemplary in this regard. The EICTV organizes courses for the people of the area in the Communitarian Training Study Center affiliated with TV Serrana. In addition, documentary students from the EICTV travel to the Sierra Maestra to carry out an immersion exercise that leads to their making a documentary.
17Instead of a permanent teaching staff, the EICTV has a leader and a coordinator for each department. Teaching is carried out by invited scholars and professionals from around the world who visit the school for limited stays, usually two weeks in duration. This mode of operation leads to great eclecticism, providing the students with multiple points of view on documentary. In this manner, the formation of a broad documentary culture and the acquisition of a personal style are favored, as evidenced by the diverse styles and unique and dissident ways of representing reality in the documentaries emanating from this school.
18The third year of the EICTV documentary program is devoted to the making of an audiovisual thesis, a work designed to launch a career, mainly through participation in festivals. These films belong to the vast category of social creative documentary and reflect an obligatory balance between creativity and the necessary adaptation to production conditions in Latin America (about 80% of EICT students come from this continent). The school encourages students to prepare for the conditions of domestic industries, where documentary production depends heavily on public subsidies and grants, as well as on national and international awards, to facilitate financing and gain notoriety in the inbred world of documentary. Indeed, given the fact that neither funding by broadcasters, and broadcasting quotas regarding domestic production are subject to strict regulation in general, and that theaters do not typically accommodate this type of work in their programming, support from the institutional and cultural sector is vital to keep non-fiction alive. For these reasons, the school instills an ambition in their graduates to contribute to structuring the audiovisual industry in their countries of origin, in parallel to the mastery of documentary techniques and language.
- 7 Guarini, Carmen « De lo real a la realidad. El documental de creación en América Latina » in Russo, (...)
19EICTV addresses two models of project development and their specific implications on the final work. Most documentaries follow a style and narrative form forged in the pitching sessions and project development labs that have become an obligatory rite of passage for young filmmakers. The Latin American filmmaker Carmen Guarini considers that while this trend is a hallmark of cultural globalization, it nevertheless responds to the needs of Latin American filmmakers, where the conditions of production are relatively meager and remain subsidiary to the major filmmaking centers, Europe and USA7. At the same time EICTV also encourages the integration of new forms of financing, such as crowdfunding and the solicitation of support from NGOs.
20Another way EICTV approaches documentary education is to immerse the student in an unfamiliar environment without considering the marketplace. Here, students are compelled to interact with the inhabitants of this environment and grasp its space in a short time, with the explicit aim of making a documentary exercise. Films resulting from these immersions fall into the category of ‘Urgent Cinema’, inspired by the tutelary figure of Santiago Alvarez, who showed that this storytelling form responds to the specific needs of countries or communities with weak industrial capacity or who are involved in processes of struggle and liberation. It may be open to invention, experimentation and aesthetic transgression in particular ways.
- 8 Senna, Orlando, « La escuela de los tres mundos », Madrid, Telos n°33, 1993.
21This approach follows the dream nurtured by the Latin American Filmmakers Committee, who, as explained by Orlando Senna, former director of EICTV, imagined a school that gathered up the best of the revolutionary heritage, including freedom of expression, activism for continental integration, the defense of human rights, and the determination of the guerrilleros8. Both an industrial and a militant vision are closely intertwined in a dynamic and a functional pedagogy that gives the teaching of documentary by EICTV its recognized uniqueness. Thus, practice reveals theoretical needs, students learn by doing and most instruction is carried out by professionals teaching what they do in real life.
22The project To Be a Human Being (2010), conceived and coordinated by EICTV, exemplifies the goals and the philosophy of the school. This project consists of a collaborative series of short documentaries made by student filmmakers from six schools around the world, underlining a current perspective on the question of engagement and activism in documentary. The series is designed as an ongoing project, serving as a pilot for other productions with a similar ethical, cultural and political focus. Launched as a collection of linear films aimed for festivals, community and public networks and theatrical release, To Be a Human Being has the potential to migrate to the web, and become an open space dedicated to the preservation and the diffusion of the collective memory of humanity.
23The Open Documentary Lab (ODL) at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) differs from the previous programs not only with respect to aim and structure, but also regarding its positioning relative to industry. This resource, created in 2012, brings together academics, technologists and creators to prepare the next generation of non-fiction media makers. The ODL takes into consideration ongoing changes in the distribution system, especially the replacement of cinema and television by the internet as the major venue for documentary. This program also draws on how the new digital culture has assumed a more and more dominant role in production, as evidenced by ever-increasing content uploads to YouTube. Overall, the paradigm shift brought about by new outlets for distribution, the increasingly democratized availability of production equipment, and the accessibility almost anyone has to the know-how of content creation, has inspired ODL's commitment towards the future of documentary.
24The ODL program is linked to industry, mainly with relevant post-television documentary players, who are nevertheless also involved in supporting traditional nonfiction. These include the Sundance Institute, the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam (IDFA), the National Film Board of Canada, the Tribeca Film Institute, Docs Barcelona, The Boston Globe and The New York Times. Students are placed at the center of these partnerships, acting as the interface with industry representatives to build up a professional network.
- 9 Carroll, Shannon, « The Future of Documentary Education. Inside Three New College Programs », http: (...)
25ODL is rooted in MIT’s historically strong commitment to documentary film and technical innovation. In 1968, Richard Leacock, one of the pioneers of Direct Cinema, was invited to join Ed Pincus to run the Documentary Film Section, later associated with the MIT Media Lab. Leacock stayed until 1989, contributing to make the Media Lab a fertile ground for the evolution of documentary form and aesthetics that kept pace with technical innovation. The ODL, housed within MIT's Department of Comparative Media Studies and Writing, acts in continuity with this tradition. William Uricchio, Lead Principal Investigator of the ODL, has pointed out how the freedom to invent new forms, as well as the marriage between science and media departments at MIT, have provided crucial elements for the activity of the Lab9.
- 10 http://opendoclab.mit.edu/video-interview-william-uricchio-defines-interactive-documentary Consulte (...)
26At the center of the ODL mission is the concept of interactive documentary, including productions with non-linear textual structures, crowd-sourced and location-based productions, and works that integrate interactions between text, space and audience. Uricchio puts forward the idea that in interactive documentary the user is a “co-constructor of the text” along with the author/director10. He also stresses the need to understand that interactive documentary comes from a space between narrative and play that is different from traditional filmmaking. As a result, the program tries to look at the dynamics of media across media borders, combining concepts of co-design with the practicalities of working with communities and grassroots operations, with the goal of empowering people to enable the production of self-narratives.
27Both Bachelor and Master's degrees, the latter leading to a PhD track, are offered by the ODL through MIT's Comparative Media Studies Department. The ODL also supports a Fellows program that involves professional filmmakers, artists and technologists in research at the Laboratory. The curriculum of the ODL combines three sets of skills: storytelling, technology and critical thinking. As opposed to most MFA programs which use hands-on approaches intended to sharpen participants' skills as filmmakers, the students at the ODL are focused on experimentation, with an empirical approach that requires innovative thinking about documentary in new spaces, with new tools, players and partners. In particular, the ODL philosophy draws on MIT’s legacy of media innovation as well as on a deep commitment to open and accessible information.
- 11 De Michiel, Helen and Zimmerman, Patricia « Documentary as an open space » in Winston, Brian (ed.) (...)
- 12 Bourriaud, Nicolas, Esthétique relationnelle, Les presses du réel, Dijon, 1998.
28This latter direction is finding increased adherents throughout the practice of documentary, including education, not only at the ODL. For example, the idea of documentary as “open space”, as explained by Helen de Michiel and Patricia Zimmerman11, provides a useful theoretical tool to think about new forms of non-fiction. These authors describe how emerging forms necessarily mark a shift of documentary towards an open space, developing beyond the status quo of feature-length films or television programs. Their theoretical model invokes collaboration, multiple iterations, decentralization, and migration across media platforms and between distinct communities. This approach engages “relational aesthetics”, a concept developed by French theorist Nicolas Burriaud12, who has charted new forms of participative art based on encounters, contingency and collaboration that produce micro-communities. Possibly, works created in this way create a social interstice with possibilities for interaction.
29Introducing new practices into teaching at ODL include confronting the notion of authorship and the role of academia when documentary deals with relational convening , performative encounters, polyphony and engagement, as stressed by de Michiel and Zimmerman.
- 13 Dovey, Jon and Rose, Mandy, « This Great Mapping of Ourselves : New Documentary Forms Online » in W (...)
30The ODL program also addresses the challenge of bringing together scholars with complementary skills for producing interactive and open space documentary, not only as a technical matter, but also for enabling the more abstract transmission of culture and know-how. As Dovey and Rose write, “It is still editorial control, rigorous work with metadata, imagination and a grasp of database aesthetics that creates meaningful documentary experiences”13. Academia therefore has a central role in setting up new trans-disciplinary approaches for the transmission of a new culture.
31The COME/IN/DOC (Collaborative Meta Interactive Documentary) project for interactive documentary, directed by Arnau Gifreu at the ODL, is an example of how theoretical and applied research can be transformed into a practical instrument. Gifreu works from the assumption that interactive documentary is a distinct audiovisual format with specific characteristics, underlining how this form relates to the new dynamics that favor independent low-budget production. The meta-documentary created by Gifreu exemplifies a process of collaborative work as one basis to achieve an interactive documentary. As a result, the COME/IN/DOC methodology combines theoretical information obtained through investigation, with experience gained in interface design, with the final goal of creating a tool for both academic education and the training of professionals.
32The programs discussed above aim at transmitting a culture of documentary, most commonly via teamwork between students from different backgrounds under the guidance of scholars who, in many cases, pursue a parallel activity in the industry. The curricula are typically designed to match students' expectations, thus to acquire appropriate knowledge, skills, experience and industry connections, as well as to fulfill an intellectual desire to discover new ways of questioning and examining history and contemporary society. The affiliation of documentary studies with film and media studies is standard, but it is increasingly common to incorporate documentary in other fields, including sociology, political science, visual art, information and communication science, anthropology, psychology, history, economics and law. Whatever the co-discipline, the documentary programs that have appeared over the last two decades have often been built from novel intersections: documentary has therefore come to serve as a polyvalent link, capable of matching almost all academic courses.
33Moreover, documentary has historically demonstrated a particular malleability to incorporate and anticipate aesthetic, formal and technological evolution. This is exemplified by two major disruptions in the teaching of documentary, which preceded the current one based on the adoption of digital technology. The first was the arrival of Direct Cinema in the late 1950s, when collaborations between filmmakers and engineers enabled synchronized sound and image recording. Indeed, the contemporary dynamics of emerging documentary forms can be compared to the state of affairs at the beginning of Direct Cinema. At that time, some professionals and scholars took a critical stance on what was considered a radical method of filmmaking, far from the style of 35 mm documentaries. Certainly, the recent proliferation of new documentary forms on the web, intermingling “traditional” rhetoric with amateur practices, has been subject to similar reactions.
- 14 Palacio, Manuel, « El eslabón perdido. Apuntes para una genealogía del cine documental contemporáne (...)
- 15 William Uricchio « Repenser le documentaire social » in Téléphone mobile et création, Allard, Laure (...)
34The second technological disruption was the transition to video and its early adoption in documentary courses. Video technology entered schools and universities in the 1980s in documentary teaching14, before any other field of film and media studies. As a result, most of the documentary-makers who have emerged in the public space since then learned the basics of audiovisual representation with video. Indeed, the introduction of video in higher education blurred the distinction between this technology and film in teaching, as well as encouraging, primarily because of its lower costs, the new syllabi which combine field practice and theoretical studies. In a similar manner, the mobile phone, the current iconic tool of technological development, has begun to be admitted to university in the context of documentary teaching15.
35As with previous technological shifts, contemporary documentary is at the forefront of incorporating innovations in the way moving images are produced and distributed. Non-fiction has asserted itself as a form that matches the aspirations of connected individuals who are simultaneously content producers and consumers. Stemming from the audacity documentary can exhibit for extending narrative codes and modes of communication with the audience, academia has created new courses which tackle the theoretical questions raised by new production and distribution practices of non-fiction. Furthermore, pedagogical laboratories for the experimentation of audio-visual forms, such as the ODL at MIT, provide feedback between the teaching of documentary and research.
36The ambiguous relation between documentary and traditional mass media is also a central issue for teaching. Different programs address this question from different perspectives, emphasizing opposition, synergy, or even both, as do the courses at UPF and EICTV. When constructing the pedagogy of documentary, it is becoming more and more common to marginalize television, preferring a focus on digital media and its promise of democratized access and freedom from the formatting constraints imposed by broadcasters. Nevertheless, in most countries, television remains the predominant funding source and outlet for documentary, and the strong presence of documentary in this medium has played an important role in increasing the number of courses in higher education.
37As we have seen in the above analysis, documentary has a unique ability to marry a diversity of practices, goals and questions, with the capacity to extend its scope in flexible configurations, from aesthetics to societal and political issues. Consequently, defining a rigid bailiwick of documentary studies is problematic, as evidenced by documentary's diluting the specificity of film and media studies. The three programs that I have described show that documentary as an object of study and practice continually raises new questions and inspires innovative pedagogical approaches which draw on and in turn influence a number of disciplines, in particular in light of the technological advances facilitating the democratization of production. Film studies is a primary example of this bilateral exchange, as especially evident by the fact that the borders demarcating this field have been expanded by documentary. Consequently, it can be argued that documentary has made a major contribution in bringing together film and media studies.
38Finally, as a practical matter, documentary is one of the most prevalent forms in today's media space, and often represents the first job market for students coming out of film and media studies. This may also explain the current popularity of documentary within academia, and the dizzying proliferation of programs in the last twenty years.
1 Bruzzi, Stella, New Documentary, London and New York, Routledge, 2006.
2 Balló, Jordi, « Cronología de una transmisión (El Master de Documental de la UPF) in Torreiro, C. (ed.), Realidad y creación en el cine de no-ficción, Madrid, Cátedra, 2010, p. 105-121. “Para nosotros este Máster debía incidir realmente en un nuevo concepto de industria de creación, y sabíamos que lo hacíamos en un territorio sin tradición reciente ni una practica productiva continuada”.
3 Castanon, Brice, Renouveau du documentaire en Espagne et nouveau réalisme catalan : le master en Documentaire de création de l’Université Pompeu Fabra (Barcelone). PhD thesis, Université Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2011.
4 Viveros, Carmen and Catalá, Josep M. « La nueva ecología del documental » in Torreiro, C. (ed.), Realidad y creación en el cine de no-ficción, Madrid, Cátedra, 2010, p. 123-141.
5 Balló, Jordi, ibid. p.107 « ¿Cómo se puede aprender del otro en el momento de rodar una película, cuando hay mas dudas que convicciones ? ¿Puede un director joven implicarse en el trabajo de un director con mas experiencia y sacar lecciones de él? ¿Cómo iba a funcionar el deseo de filiación? »
6 “Acta de Nacimiento de la Escuela Internacional de Cine y Televisión en San Antonio de los Baños, Cuba, sobrenombrada de Tres Mundos”. Published in Como se filma un « Docfic », Taller de dirección de Fernando Birri, Diputación de Córboba y Fundación del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano, 2007, p. 273-300.
7 Guarini, Carmen « De lo real a la realidad. El documental de creación en América Latina » in Russo, Eduardo A. (coord.) Hacer Cine. Producción Audiovisual en América Latina, Buenos Aires, Paidós, 2008, p. 347-362.
8 Senna, Orlando, « La escuela de los tres mundos », Madrid, Telos n°33, 1993.
9 Carroll, Shannon, « The Future of Documentary Education. Inside Three New College Programs », http://www.pbs.org/pov/blog/2013/09/the-future-of-documentary-mfa-mit-opendoclab-duke-loyola-marymount/#.VVBbD47tlBd Consulted on May 9th 2014.
10 http://opendoclab.mit.edu/video-interview-william-uricchio-defines-interactive-documentary Consulted on May 10th 2014.
11 De Michiel, Helen and Zimmerman, Patricia « Documentary as an open space » in Winston, Brian (ed.) The Documentary Film Book, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013 p. 356 - 365.
12 Bourriaud, Nicolas, Esthétique relationnelle, Les presses du réel, Dijon, 1998.
13 Dovey, Jon and Rose, Mandy, « This Great Mapping of Ourselves : New Documentary Forms Online » in Winston, Brian (Ed.) The Documentary Film Book, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013 p. 365-375.
14 Palacio, Manuel, « El eslabón perdido. Apuntes para una genealogía del cine documental contemporáneo » in Torreiro, C. and Cerdán, J. (eds.) Documental y vanguardia, Madrid, Cátedra, 2005; p. 161-164.
15 William Uricchio « Repenser le documentaire social » in Téléphone mobile et création, Allard, Laurence, Creton Laurent and Odin, Roger, Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 61-79.Haut de page
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